Sunday, 21 July 2013
Modem Authentication Bypass via Cookie ID 'Hijack'
The image of the Modem used in this 'hack'
Let's do the Modem Administration page walkthrough. Access the modem through the URL.
In this case, i want to edit some Wireless settings, so i click on the Wireless tab and it gives me a login portal. Enter my password and Login.
Once authenticated, i can now access the Wireless configuration settings.
Now let's do a wrong password authentication. Before doing this, we shall clear the browsing history including cookies from Firefox.
Browse to the login page and enter a wrong password. Since the password is invalid, we are now unable to login.
So let's try to bypass that login page. In this 'hack', im using Burp Proxy to analyze the HTTP header and perform the 'hijack'
Once Burp Proxy is configured, let's access the URL. Burp Proxy will show that we are making a request to the modem. Click Forward to let the traffic pass.
Next, a Cookie was created with the ID=dM4n1R
Go to the Wireless tab and enter the password.
When we click Login, it is using the same cookie to send the authentication details to the modem.
And since the password is correct, we are able to get the config_wifi.htm (which is the Wireless configuration page)
*Important: Copy the cookie ID!!!!! This is crucial for the bypass step.
And we are now in the configuration page.
Now let's clear our browsing history and cookies for a new session and this time we are going to analyse a failed authentication session.
Clear your cookies, close your browser and reopened it.
Access the URL and we now see a new cookie is being generated with the ID=a0SluW
Go to the Wireless tab and enter a wrong password.
Now since the password is wrong, we get the reply as config_wifi.htm?pwd=ko HTTP/1.1
And the message seen for a failed authentication.
Now let's perform the 'bypass hack'.
Clear the browsing histories and cookies. Close your browser and reopen a new one.
Access the URL.
You can see, a new session is created with a new cookie ID.
Replace the cookie ID with the ID dM4n1R
Replace the cookie ID with the ID dM4n1R when prompted
Now that all the cookies are replaced, click on the Wireless tab and you will see that you are able to access the Wireless Configuration page without having to authenticate at the login screen.
In this hack, while we practice the idea of deleting histories and cookies, some devices are not smart enough to know that the cookies used are a 'manipulated' one. Furthermore, in this administration page, there is no 'log out' button to be clicked. A possible prevention to this hack is to have the log out button which after that is smart enough to know that the cookie used after logged out must not be used anymore. Additionally, i would also need to mention that although this hack is successful, the same cookie ID could not be used after a period of time. The expiration of the cookie could be one of the reason why that happens.
*Disclaimer: While this hack is successful, my understanding on how cookies work in devices besides computers may not be correct hence my prevention suggestion may not be applicable to the modem device.